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Men, women, and children may all be taken as prisoners of war under traditional interpretations of Islamic law. Generally, a prisoner of war could be, at the discretion of the military leader, freed, ransomed, exchanged for Muslim prisoners, or kept in bondage. During his life, Muhammad made it the responsibility of the Islamic government to provide food and clothing, on a reasonable basis, to captives, regardless of their religion.

Historically, Muslims routinely captured large number of prisoners. Aside from those who converted to Islam, most were ransomed or enslaved. It was the custom to enslave prisoners of war and the Islamic state would have put itself at a grave disadvantage vis-a-vis its enemies had it not reciprocated to some extent.

By guaranteeing them [male POWs] humane treatment, and various possibilities of subsequently releasing themselves, it ensured that a good number of combatants in the opposing armies preferred captivity at the hands of Muslims to death on the field of battle. According to accounts written by Muhammad 's followers, after the Battle of Badr , some prisoners were executed for their earlier crimes in Mecca, [ additional citation s needed ] but the rest were given options: They could convert to Islam and thus win their freedom; they could pay ransom and win their freedom; they could teach 10 Muslims to read and write and thus win their freedom.

During his rule, Caliph Umar made it illegal to separate related prisoners of war from each other, after a captive complained to him for being separated from her daughter. These principles were also honoured during the Crusades , as exemplified by sultans such as Saladin [ additional citation s needed ] and al-Kamil.

Progress (Chapter 4) - Islam, Authoritarianism, and Underdevelopment

For example, after al-Kamil defeated the Franks during the Crusades , Oliverus Scholasticus praised the Islamic laws of war , commenting on how al-Kamil supplied the defeated Frankish army with food: [11] [ additional citation s needed ]. Who could doubt that such goodness, friendship and charity come from God? Men whose parents, sons and daughters, brothers and sisters, had died in agony at our hands, whose lands we took, whom we drove naked from their homes, revived us with their own food when we were dying of hunger and showered us with kindness even when we were in their power.

Upon capture, the prisoners must be guarded and not ill-treated. The prisoners must be fed in a dignified manner, and must not be forced to beg for their subsistence. After the fighting is over, prisoners are to be released, with some prospect of survival, or ransomed. The freeing or ransoming of prisoners by Muslims themselves is highly recommended as a charitable act. The freeing of captives is recommended both for the expiation of sins [16] and as an act of simple benevolence.

Some Muslim scholars claim that women and children prisoners of war cannot be killed under any circumstances, regardless of their faith, [6] but that they may be enslaved, freed or ransomed. Women who are neither freed nor ransomed by their people were to be kept in bondage and referred to as ma malakat aymanukum slaves. Abubakar Shekau , the leader of Boko Haram , a Nigerian extremist group, said in an interview "I shall capture people and make them slaves" when claiming responsibility for the Chibok kidnapping.

Specifically, ISIL argued that the Yazidi were idol worshipers and justified the sexual slavery of the captured non-muslim victims as permissible under the shariah practice of enjoying the spoils of war. One traditional opinion holds that executing prisoners of war is strictly forbidden; this is the most-widely accepted view, and one upheld by the Hanafi madhab.

However, the opinion of the Maliki , Shafi'i , Hanbali and Jafari madhabs is that adult male prisoners of war may be executed. This opinion was also upheld by the Muslim judge, Sa'id bin Jubair AD and Abu Yusuf , a classical jurist from the Hanafi school of jurisprudence. In short, capital punishment for prisoners of war is only permissible in extreme cases of necessity and in the higher interests of the State. Most contemporary Muslim scholars prohibit altogether the killing of prisoners and hold that this was the policy practiced by Muhammad.

Even those the enemies of Islam , actively fighting against Islam, there may be individuals who may be in a position to require protection. Full asylum is to be given to them, and opportunities provided for hearing the Word of Allah If they do not see their way to accept Islam, they will require double protection: 1 from the Islamic forces openly fighting against their people, and 2 from their own people, as they detached themselves from them. Both kinds of protection should be ensured for them, and they should be safely escorted to a place where they can be safe. Maududi further states that Islam forbids torturing, especially by fire, and quotes Muhammad as saying, "Punishment by fire does not behoove anyone except the Master of the Fire [God].

Quoting from the sources, Muhammad Munir, from the Department of Law of the International Islamic University , Pakistan , says that early religious authorities standing against the execution of POWs at all include 'Ali b. Sirin d. Jabr d.

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Jurayj d. Ahmad al-Qurtubl d. Al-Hasan b.

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A famous case being 'Abd Allah b. One of the few persons who weren't granted immunity at the conquest of Mecca.

Muhammadﷺ ki Aulaad ┇ Children of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ ┇ IslamSearch

But he was the only one executed for what we would today call high treason as he collected tax money from Muslims before defecting and fighting them. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Aspect of Islamic jurisprudence. Shahada Salat Raka'ah Qibla Turbah.

Abbas Mahmoud el-Akkad—a modern Egyptian writer—has suggested that if Christianity could be summarized in one word it would be "Love," and that the key word for Islam might be "Truth. As Rome moved toward a position of mediation between God and man, Islam, more in the spirit of the Christian Reformation, preserved the teaching in the Koran of Allah's closeness to man.

Children of Muhammad

There is no priest in the Muslim's mosque praying for him; he directs his prayer directly to the Deity. There is no doubt that the world was in need of this doctrine, just as it was in need of the Christian doctrine that came before it. It received these two doctrines at their destined times. Islam was much affected by the cultures over which it spread. New religious and philosophical schools were set up as a result of interaction between Islam and Greek philosophy; it also absorbed certain Indian and Persian mystical tendencies.

The Mutazilites subjected the texts of religion to Greek rationalism while the Sufis brought in an element of mysticism and ecstasy, which Islam had lacked.


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Dervish preaching, on the necessity of mediation between God and his slave, man, led in some periods and regions to a sort of cult of saints. The stimulation of these various tendencies produced a series of brilliant philosophers who were studied with respect in medieval Europe. The rapid spread of Islam over a huge area broke down a number of the social ideals of the early Muslim community. The spirit of Islam—Mohammed's reform of the society he had found—allowed a certain laxity to develop later: multiple marriage became a problem and easy divorce an evil, while the social equality of early Islam gave way to the customs of the conquered despotic empires.

It is against the backdrop of a long, and wearisome "Dark Age" that modern Islam must be viewed. Traditional Islam was a complete "way of life" in which social conventions and religious beliefs were closely integrated. Today Islam is moving toward a position more like that of Western religion, with separation of church and state. This is reflected in education. There is no school in Muslim countries in which religious studies do not exist. But the teacher of religion is usually not also a teacher of the secular studies.

The two fields are becoming entirely independent of each other. Thus Egypt, for example, has alongside of and separate from its ancient Azhar—the world's' oldest university—three modern, secular universities which are largely Western in organization and spirit.

The central problem facing Arab Muslims, and indeed all Muslims, today is how to find a new way of life—Islamic in character—which will be halfway between the East and the West and which will provide the internal stability necessary to enable Muslims to face their problems independently. The Arab World can borrow technology from the West but it must find the answers to its deeper problems within itself.

One need only observe book-buying habits to see the strong interest in Islam still alive today. In Cairo any book discussing Islam is sure of a big sale.


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  8. This shows that people are not drifting away from religion. It is a fact also that the world struggle between democracy and communism has led Muslims to make a fresh evaluation of their religion to see where it stands in relation to these two conflicting movements. How far does Islam really penetrate into the hearts of Muslims today? What tangible effects does it have in their lives?

    There is no simple answer and much depends on exactly what is meant by Muslims. Those who have a good understanding of Islam—unfortunately, the minority—are inspired by their religion with pride and self-respect, and a desire for freedom. The Muslim Brotherhood is the extreme expression of this side of Islam. Hasan el-Banna, the founder of the movement, called on Muslims to be "leaders in their countries and masters in their homelands.