PDF De lÉtat providence à lÉtat accompagnant (French Edition)

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This article aims to describe the effects of the conflicting cohabitation between former and new inhabitants in this district. The hard-branding construction in Montreal, i. Located in the Faubourg Saint-Laurent neighbourhood, the re development project, which embodies multiple interventions within a 1 km2 area, seems to have created a new investment dynamic in the neighbourhood.

In addition to commercial and leisure activities that cater to tourists and visitors, local investment has attempted to re-invigorate the image of this downtown neighbourhood as a desired residential environment. The impact of re development projects on long-term residents is difficult to establish and evaluate. The experience of the Quartier des spectacles is multidimensional: the Quartier des spectacles as a physical site, an image, an experience of festivals and people, and a catalyst for change. But this experience calls into question the definition of the Quartier des spectacles as a residential environment.

Abstract New and Long-Established Shopkeepers Facing Socioeconomic Transformations in Two Former Working-Class Montreal Neighbourhoods Based on a two-year field study involving 50 semi-structured interviews with new and long-established shopkeepers in two former working-class Montreal neighbourhoods undergoing gentrification, this paper explores the multifaceted relationship storeowners cultivate with the changing population of their primary catchment area. Deux exemples parisiens. It is based upon a field study of two shared gardens mixing participant observations, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews.

These gatherings end up creating very strong local networks. Consequently, they can be used individually to provide solidarity and support between group members, yet they also reinforce social inequalities as they empower established middle-classes, which already have enough resources to occupy urban spaces.

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The Case of Ahuntsic, a Pericentral Neighbourhood in Montreal The literature on gentrification of urban neighbourhoods has flourished in recent years although the role of families in neighbourhood change remains relatively unknown. We study neighbourhood transformations due to the arrival of families with young children in Ahuntsic, a peri-central neighbourhood in Montreal, which is a type of neighbourhood largely underexplored in the academic literature. The results presented are based on a study conducted in Ahuntsic between and that includes: 1 thirty observations of public spaces parks, sports facilities, libraries and community centres ; 2 more than forty short interviews with residents and users of these spaces; and 3 over twenty in-depth interviews with families with young children.

Two major neighbourhood changes are analyzed. First, families demonstrate differentiated uses of shops, parks, sports and cultural facilities that fit their needs. Second, they display intensive neighbourly relations that transform local sociability dynamics and contribute to maintaining a valued urban lifestyle. It is argued that the neighbourhood change that comes with the arrival of families with young children, emphasizes the need to rethink the place of families in peri-central neighbourhoods as well as a renewed vision of urban inclusiveness.

Changement de cap? A Change of Course? Social sciences literature on the subject of informality in Latin America provides insight into the cadence of Latin American political economy dating back to the s, as well as to similar trends concerning state restructuring. The paper examines how different relations of informal and formal practice enable urban planning, development and politics, and explores the changing relationship between informality and formality over time.

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To illustrate the political potential of conceiving informality and formality as practices, it highlights the fall-out from a particular urban crisis: the Mumbai monsoon floods. In the final section, the paper offers three conceptual frames for charting the changing relations of informal and formal practices: speculation, composition, and bricolage. Abstract Studying the State from the Perspective of Informality. It became integrated into the daily lives of the Beninese population, and was substituted to gas stations which had otherwise prohibitive prices.

Beyond presenting popular theories on the informal, this paper adopts a critical, multi-centric, and socio-anthropological perspective.

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  • Abstract Informality and Legitimate Physical Violence: Senegal Islamic Militia The proliferation of weaponized Islamic militias and of their propensity to use physical violence in the margins of formal proceedings constitutes one of the manifestations of the informality of legitimate physical violence in Senegal. Whatever their shapes, these militias are not completely out of the reach of political power, as the latter attempts to control the groups politically. Power transforms auxiliary public security militias in decisive and permanent ways. Power mobilizes militias to attack its opponents, its citizens, or political activists with assured impunity.

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    Protests threatening political authority are harshly reprimanded. The reform parallels the protests and appeal of admissibility decisions, which gave rise to the creation of a social security tribunal which was less criticized. Ultimately it resulted in the informalization of the processes and recourse of social justice. If such a reform is characteristic of the authoritative character of the Harper government in power until , this article proposes to underline the compatibility of these reforms with a new paradigm guiding welfare state reforms in the industrialized countries and challenging the notion of social justice Seigel, The informalization of social justice is shown in this context to be the result as much of arbitrary procedures as of the invisibilization of this process, due to its failure to be defined as a public problem.

    Abstract Informalization of Paid Work and Social Risks for Workers: The Role of Welfare States This article aims to explore the ways in which the politics of the European state welfare affect the growth of informal employment aiming to overcome poverty.

    En quel temps vivons-nous ?

    It is important to establish distinctions between different types of informal work, which differ significantly among types of welfare state systems, taking into account the importance of work regulations, the degrees of control over and of sanctions upon informal work, the ability to access social protection, the dynamic demographic of migrations, etc. The combination of these factors contribute to exposing the various degrees which workers in the most vulnerable formal economies experience social risks, generally covered by measures of social protection and social rights.

    In its empirical section, the paper analyses data of the Special Eurobarometer and the findings of cross-national comparative research in an international EU project for five European countries Denmark, Finland, Germany, Poland and Spain which are based on national survey data and qualitative research data. Abstract Regulating with Informality.

    It demonstrates that beyond informal or undeclared work, informality also emerges at the heart of formal employment and is protected through situations that are more or less legal. It is challenging for the state to regulate, despite its long list of measures against such situations.

    Paradoxically, informality results from state action because of the ambiguity of the direct or indirect programs which, aiming to develop the capacity, the employability, the social inclusion, or the formalization of undeclared employment, reproduce situations of informality for working youth. These elements are illustrated with data from qualitative and longitudinal research on the subject of the professional journeys of Argentinian youth.

    Dominique Vidal - La loi comme cadre et comme horizon. Abstract The Law as a Frame and as a Horizon. What these consequences share in common is that they cannot be understood without taking social historicity into account.

    We will therefore see that the law can, depending on the situation, exist either as a far-off horizon, or within a framework that allows identification and limits social boundaries. We will see then the difficulty, in the case of Brazil, to speak generally of the state in a process of informationalization, or on the contrary, of a state acting for the judicial protection of individuals.

    Universities are cut off from 90 p. On the fringe of their respective environments, a few university adminstrators and a few representatives of citizens groups are trying to find a way to work together.


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    The programme seeks to establish a presence in the community by participating in struggles both through the union and outside the workplace. In the latter case, joint-action has been possible in the housing, health and civil-rights areas. The article goes on to discuss the relationships between independent citizen education, intellectuals and institutions. Que devient le savoir dans la recherche-action?

    Action et recherche peuvent-elles fusionner? Que devient alors le savoir?

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    • Abstract Research-action or knowledge for action? There are various ways to link research to action. We should ask ourselves at least two questions: 1 in whose interests is R-A? One must begin by analysing the allegiances of the researcher in an attempt to determine on what conditions his own interests and concerns may come into conflict with those of the group with which he is working.

      Secondly, there must be some kind of a contractual relationship that can be democratically controlled. Can action and research fuse together?

      Stavros Spyrellis

      What happens to the knowledge produced? Without a relatively independent status for knowledge, is there not a danger of losing the critical contribution of reason and experience? Without this contribution are we not in danger of reintroducing the arbitrary nature of the research and researcher back into the process of producing knowledge? Abstract Sociological intervention Sociological intervention, a particular type of research-action which has been developed by Alain Touraine, has been widely used in working with protest movements.

      One can describe it as a process which is based upon the dynamic resolution of conflicts between researchers and activists, between analysis and action. The various components of this type of intervention are presented here: the necessity for the intervention to be a response to a formal request by the group concerned, the definition of roles and the "permanent sociology" phase.

      The sociological intervention is organized in function of a cognitive objective and seeks to understand how collective action and social movements are constructed. The ways in which action is constituted seems to be useful for the actors concerned especially in that they see their struggles as an important part of the process of social reconstruction. Le savoir scientifique — tout comme la terre, la force de travail et le capital — constitue une ressource, voire une marchandise. Abstract Scientific Knowledge, Public Policy and Democracy The effect of scientific knowledge on the vaguely defined set of values known as "democracy" is a matter of persistent concern.

      This is reflected in populist demands for greater public participation in major policy choices. Such demands underscore the need of political dialogue in areas formerly in the domaine of expertise. Informed dialogue however, and meaningful negotiation over policy choices require competence to deal with difficult technical information—if only to prevent such choices from being masked as technical imperatives.

      S1E2 - La protection sociale, l'état providence et les politiques sociales

      Scientific knowledge, like land, labour and capital, is a resource—indeed a commodity—and the ability to manipulate and control this resource has profound implications for the distribution of political power in democratic societies. Abstract The evaluation of holistic care The integration of alternative medicine into the official healthcare system is an important issue. One of the factors the Quebec authorities concerned will consider when a decision is made in this respect will undoubtedly be the effectiveness of alternative therapies, i.

      This text describes the stages of the research carried out to evaluate articles, published in English or French since , on the effectiveness of certain alternative care methods. The selection of the articles and the choice and use of the evaluation grid are presented in detail.

      Finally, the question of the credibility and validity of the articles, which is at the heart of the debate on the therapeutic effectiveness of alternative medicine, is analyzed. Yves Lochard et Maud Simonet-Cusset Entre science et politique : les politiques du savoir dans le monde associatif. Abstract Between science and politics: Social knowledge in the community sector Since the s, the community sector has developed its own social knowledge and claimed recognition of this contribution to social analysis.

      An analysis of the discourses and practices of actors documents a wide range of political positions of the sector with respect to its double relationship: to scientists and to the state. In all cases there is a similar tension. Despite variety and the pressure for co-existence, there is a tension between the a logic of action and that of social knowledge.